The United States Congressional Executive Commission Report on Communist China, published on October 10 2009, documents that coercive birth-control abuses continue to traumatize women across China, including occupied territories such as East Turkestan and Tibet. Women face a range of administrative penalties including fines, loss of employment confiscation of property and are also subject to a range of medical atrocities including forced sterilizations and forced abortions. These violations are centrally engineered supported and resourced by the communist Chinese regime with the full knowledge of foreign agencies such as the United Nation’s Population Fund, Marie Stopes International, and the International Planned Parenthood Federation (all of whom are associated with China’s population program). Like governments, and the majority women’s organisations, these bodies choose to maintain a shameful silence on these atrocities, some go further and excuse and defend the Chinese program, valuing population control, and supposed economic progress, for women above human rights.
The following is an extract of the full document, which may be found here: CECC 2009 Report
In the Commission’s 2009 reporting year, central and local authorities continued to interfere with and control the reproductive lives of Chinese women through an all-encompassing system of family planning regulations in which the government is directly involved in the reproductive decisions of its citizens. Population planning policies limit most women in urban areas to bearing one child, while permitting slightly more than half of women in rural areas to bear a second child if their first child is female.
In the past year, the Commission notes that several Chinese municipalities are allowing younger couples in which both spouses hail from one-child households to have more than one child.
Despite progress in this regard, local officials and state-run work units continue to interfere in the reproductive lives of Chinese women by monitoring their reproductive cycles in order to prevent unauthorized births.
The Chinese government requires married couples to obtain a birth permit before they can lawfully bear a child and forces them to use contraception at other times.
Violators of the policy are routinely punished with fines, and in some cases, subjected to forced sterilization, forced abortion, arbitrary detention, and torture.
China’s population planning policies in both their nature and implementation violate international human rights standards. Although implementation tends to vary across localities, the government’s population planning law and regulations contravene international human rights standards by limiting the number of children that women may bear and by coercing compliance with population targets through heavy fines.
Controls imposed on Chinese women and their families and additional abuses engendered by the system, from forced abortion to discriminatory policies against ‘‘out-of-plan’’ children, also violate standards in the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.
In December 2008, the UN Committee against Torture expressed concern with Chinese authorities’ ‘‘lack of investigation into the alleged use of coercive and violent measures to implement the population policy’’ and urged the government to bring its population planning policies into ‘‘full compliance’’ with the relevant provisions of the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment.<span style=”font-family:NewCenturySchlbk-Roman;”. As a state party to all of these treaties, China is bound to uphold their terms.
The Ganzhou program also authorizes officials to apply ‘‘coercive measures’’ such as judicial detention and property seizure against those who refuse to pay the fines.13 In the same month, the Anxi county government in Fujian province issued a circular ordering officials to seek court authorization to carry out ‘‘coercive measures’’ when family planning violators fail to pay fines.
In its 2009 work plan, the Qianguo County Population and Family Planning Commission in Jilin province called on local officials to ‘‘expand special punishments for illicit births, strictly enforce the investigation and prosecution of illicit births, and stress the strengthening of penalties for those who violate [family planning policies].’’ Authorities in some localities are levying social compensation fees at higher levels according to the violator’s income and, in some cases, additional fines are imposed on women who resist official efforts
to ‘‘implement remedial measures’’ such as abortion.
In Chongqing municipality’s Tongliang county, for example, officials launched a multi-month project in July 2008 that would impose fines of between 5,000 yuan (US$731) and 10,000 yuan (US$1,464) on women who resist government efforts to compel them to have an abortion. This fine is levied in addition to the ordinary social compensation fee of 2,000 yuan (US$293) to 5,000 yuan (US$731).16 In November 2008, the Shanxi Provincial People’s Congress Standing Committee passed an amendment to the provincial family planning regulations that imposes stricter standards for social compensation fees. For couples who have a second child in violation of these regulations, the government will assess a social compensation fee equal to 20 percent of a couple’s combined income once per year for seven years, which must total no less than 7,000 yuan (US$1,025). If a couple has a third child, the fine rises to 40 percent of their combined income assessed for a 14-year period, which must total no less than 30,000 yuan (US$4,392).
Local governments also offer monetary incentives to citizen informants who report violations of population planning regulations. In March 2009, the Beijing Times reported that the Beijing Municipal Population and Family Planning Commission had begun offering rewards of an unspecified amount to informants who report ‘‘out-of-plan’’ pregnancies and extramarital pregnancies. In April 2009, the Chun’an County Bureau of Population and Family Planning in Zhejiang province introduced a system for providing informants with cash rewards of 1,000 yuan (US$146) per violation reported. The circular also states that authorities will ‘‘strictly pro153 tect [sic] the secrecy’’ of the informant’s identity. In July 2009, Yangxin county authorities in Shandong province released measures for providing citizen informants with awards ranging from 300 yuan (US$44) to 3,000 yuan (US$439) depending on the severity of the reported violation.
Implementation: Abortion and Sterilization
The use of coercive measures in the enforcement of population planning policies remains commonplace despite provisions for the punishment of official abuse outlined in the PRC Population and Family Planning Law. The same law requires that local family planning bureaus conduct regular pregnancy tests on married women and administer unspecified ‘‘follow-up’’ services. The population planning regulations of at least 18 of China’s 31 provincial level jurisdictions permit officials to take steps to ensure that birth quotas are not exceeded; in practice, these steps can include forced abortion and forced sterilization.
In some cases, local officials coerce abortions in the third trimester. ‘‘Termination of pregnancy’’ is explicitly required if a pregnancy does not conform with provincial population planning regulations in Anhui, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Hubei, Hunan, Jilin, Liaoning, and Ningxia provinces. In 10 other provinces—Fujian, Guizhou, Guangdong, Gansu (Tibettruth–Editor’s Note, Gansu province contains a significant Tibetan population), Jiangxi, Qinghai (Tibettruth–Editor’s Note: The vast majority of so-called Qinghai province comprises the traditional Tibetan regon of Amdo, thus revealing once again that despite the official denials, Tibetans are indeed subject to coercive birth control reglulations) Sichuan (Tibettruth–Editor’s Note, Sichuan province contains a significant Tibetan population too), Shanxi, Shaanxi, and Yunnan—population planning officials are authorized to take ‘‘remedial measures’’ to deal with ‘‘out of-plan’’ pregnancies. In the past year, the Commission analyzed official reports from local governments in over a third of China’s provincial-level jurisdictions and found that the term ‘‘remedial measures’’ (bujiu cuoshi) is used synonymously with compulsory abortion.
In the past year, authorities in various localities forced women to undergo abortions, and in some cases, reportedly beat violators of population planning regulations. In February 2009, a woman in Guangdong’s Shenzhen Special Economic Zone told local media that officials subjected her to a forced abortion six days prior to her due date because she was pregnant with her second child (her first was a daughter) before the officially mandated period between births had passed. Ten family planning workers took her to a clinic where she was injected in the abdomen with medication to induce an abortion. They reportedly kicked her in the stomach to expedite the abortion.
In April 2009, several male family planning workers in Sihong county, Jiangsu province, reportedly took a woman from her home and beat her repeatedly because she missed the deadline for a mandatory pregnancy exam and intrauterine device (IUD) inspection. Authorities in Guangdong’s capital forced three young surrogate mothers to undergo abortions when they were discovered hiding there in April. Authorities physically forced the women’s thumbprints onto a consent form, according to one woman’s account.
In June 2009, family planning officials in Guan county, Shandong province, forced 35-year-old Feng Junhua to have an abortion in her ninth month of pregnancy. The injection to induce abortion reportedly caused massive hemorrhaging and killed the mother. In late 2008, officials in at least three provinces (Jiangsu, Guizhou, and Anhui) and one provincial-level administrative area (Chongqing), unveiled plans and circulars launching family planning campaigns that mandate abortions of ‘‘out-of-plan’’ pregnancies. Chongqing’s Tongliang county government introduced a multi-month project in late summer 2008 with an ‘‘overall objective’’ to ‘‘go further in reducing unwanted and out-of-plan pregnancies and to implement first term and mid-to-late term abortion remedial measures.’’
In November, officials in Qingshanquan township, Xuzhou municipality, Jiangsu province, declared a ‘‘month of concentrated corrective activities’’ for family planning officials, the ‘‘focus’’ of which was ‘‘the implementation of . . . first term and mid- to late-term abortion and other remedial measures.’’. The circular stressed that officials must ‘‘avoid just going through the motions’’ and should instead ‘‘resolutely implement abortion and other remedial measures, strictly standardize the birth policy, adopt remedial measures for each and every out-of-plan pregnancy, and reliably prevent out-of-plan births.’’
Also in November, the family planning ‘‘leading group’’ of Guizhou’s Qiandongnan Miao and Dong Autonomous Prefecture (Tibettruth Editor’s Note: so-called national minorities are supposed to be exempt from birth control measures, a lie featured by the BBC’s film ‘A Year in Tibet’) pressed local officials to ‘‘take forceful measures’’ and ‘‘resolutely adopt remedial measures for out-of-plan pregnancies.’’ It recommended ‘‘strengthening’’ pregnancy exams in order to ‘‘remedy’’ out-of-plan pregnancies at an early stage and thereby reduce ‘‘late-term abortions and control measures.’’
In December, authorities in Changfeng county, Anhui province, circulated a directive that ordered comprehensive inspections in which ‘‘no village misses any group, no group misses any household, no household misses any person, and no person misses any item.’’ During these inspections, officials must ‘‘resolutely carry out remedial measures to the stipulated standard’’ for households with a son or more than one child.
In 2009, authorities in some areas of Yunnan and Fujian provinces also employed abortion as an official policy instrument. In Yunnan’s (Tibettruth Editor’s Note: This region has a consderable Tibetan population) Yanjin county, Niuzhai township officials developed a 2009 implementation plan that outlined abortion targets for specific groups: ‘‘strictly prohibit the birth of multiple children; for women who have multiple out-of-plan children and become pregnant again, the abortion rate must reach 100 percent; for women who have two out-of-plan children and become pregnant again, the abortion rate must exceed 90 percent; for women who have one outof- plan child and become pregnant again, the abortion rate must exceed 85 percent.’’ In December 2008, Luxi city authorities in Yunnan decided that village-level Communist Party secretaries must ‘‘stand in the front of the line and set an example in breaking through difficult problems such as . . . abortions of out-of-plan pregnancies.’’
In February 2009, officials in Anxi county, Fujian province, initiated a five-week campaign of ‘‘concentrated service activities’’ that designated the ‘‘implementation of abortion remedial measures’’ among its five ‘‘primary tasks.’’ The circular authorizing the campaign instructs officials to ‘‘adopt effective and comprehensive punitive measures and ensure that remedial measures against out-of-plan pregnancies are taken promptly and reliably.’’
In May 2009, officials in Xianyou county, Fujian, detained 55-yearold Wu Xinjie in order to pressure her daughter, who was nine months pregnant with a second child and had fled the area, to have an abortion. During the same period, Xianyou family planning authorities told a reporter that they forced a 20-year-old unmarried woman who was seven months pregnant to undergo an abortion. In June 2009, the Wuyishan county government in Fujian published village family planning regulations that stipulate the following: ‘‘In emergency situations when pregnancies violate family planning policies, report the matter to the village committee and promptly carry out remedial measures (abortion).’’
Some local governments specifically target migrant workers for forced abortions. In April 2009, authorities in Jinyun county, Zhejiang province, drafted an implementation plan for a month long family planning campaign in which villages would ‘‘battle with themselves’’ by conducting door-to-door inspections to obtain ‘‘clues’’ about out-of-plan pregnancies and determine the ‘‘true whereabouts’’ of migrant workers who have left the villages. The plan urges county-level officials to ‘‘assist the township law enforcement group with the implementation of remedial measures such as abortion and the collection of social compensation fees.’’ When migrants with out-of-plan pregnancies are discovered, officials should ‘‘promptly report to higher authorities and resolutely implement remedial measures; the implementation rate for remedial measures must reach 100 percent.’’
In Kunming, the capital of Yunnan province, family planning provisions impose financial penalties designed to coerce migrant workers with unauthorized pregnancies to undergo an abortion. The provisions require enterprises that employ migrants and officials from the residential committees where they live to report out-of-plan pregnancies to the family planning authorities and to attempt to ‘‘persuade’’ the migrant to ‘‘take remedial measures.’’ Local authorities then send the migrant a formal written ‘‘notification’’ that she must ‘‘take remedial measures.’’ If the migrant worker fails to have an abortion after receiving the notification, authorities can deduct a fine directly from her wages on a provisional basis. After 15 days of the penalty period elapse, the government can impose an additional fine, calculated at 3 percent of the total deduction from her wages for each day that passes that she does not ‘‘take remedial measures to terminate the pregnancy.’’
Local authorities continue to mandate surgical sterilization and the use of contraception as a means to enforce birth quotas. In November 2008, a township in Jiawang district, Xuzhou municipality, Jiangsu province, released a circular urging officials to ‘‘take the rectification of hidden dangers as your vehicle and ruthlessly seize the implementation of intrauterine device (IUD) implantation measures.’’ In March 2009, township-level authorities in Fujian province’s Sha county issued family planning recommendations that call on officials to ‘‘strictly act on the demand to carry out tubal ligation within one month’’ for women who give birth to a second or third child, and set the implementation target for this group at 100 percent.”
Officials must also ensure that IUDs are inserted in women within three months of the birth of a first child. Officials from Guidong county, Hunan province, reported in June 2009 the completion of examinations conducted on 819 women, resulting in nine tubal ligations and 17 IUD implantations. A newspaper in Yunnan province reported in February 2009 that officials there ambushed a woman named Zhang Kecui in the street and forced her to an operating room where she unwillingly underwent surgical sterilization.
Such atrocities could not be possible without the authorization, funding and planning of the Chinese government, any more than the gassing of Jews occured without Hitler’s sanction and knowledge. To misrepresent, therefore that such violations are the result of over-zealous local officials is a gross deception, aimed to deflect responsibility from the communist government of China. Such abuses have been known to women’s groups and Tibet related organizations for years, yet a veil-of-silence and inaction still greets this appalling human rights issue. It is a disgrace that those supposedly championing human rights selectively (with such callous indifference) ignore the plight of women in China, occupied Tibet and East Turkestan who are forced to submit to the harrowing realities of China’s coercive birth control program.
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